“Hymnen des Jihads”

Last year the German researcher Behnam Said published what may be the first monograph devoted specifically to jihadi anashid. It is based on his PhD thesis on the same topic. You may know Behnam’s work from the several excellent articles on anashid he has published in recent years. Behnam works in the German security service

Verfassungsschutz, and he was recently interviewed in the CTC Sentinel’s “View from the CT foxhole series”.

The book is in German, and I haven’t had the chance to read it yet, but Joas Wagemakers recently published a useful review of it in English. Joas writes that Behnam sets out to provide "a comprehensive (and perhaps even the definitive) treatment of the subject, a task in which he has largely succeeded.”

Jihadi dress: A reading list

Dress and identity markers are an important element of jihadi culture, so here is my best shot at a reading list. It supplements my previous lists on imagery, music, dreams, and poetry. Very little has been written about jihadi dress as such, so most of the items on this list are about Islamist dress or Islamic dress more broadly, but I think they provide useful background information. Please ping me on Twitter or send me an email if you know of other good articles or books on this topic.   


Mohamed-Ali
Adraoui, Purist Salafism in France

Hishaam Aidi,
Jihadis in the Hood

Samir Amghar, Le salafisme d’aujourd’hui

Rachel
Charlesworth, Imported Religious Sartorial Markers and the Beard: Perceptions
and Politics in Morocco

Daily Mail, “Inside the ISIS gift Shop”

Mamoun
Fandy, Political Science Without Clothes: The Politics Of Dress Or Contesting
The Spatiality Of The State In Egypt

Fadwa El Guindi,
Veiling Infitah with Muslim Ethic: Egypt’s Contemporary Islamic Movement 

Patrick
Haenni, L’islam de marché

Mervat
Hatem, Gender and Islamism in the 1990s

Maruta
Herding, Inventing the Muslim Cool: Islamic Youth Culture in Western Europe

Rabia
Kamal, Islamic Dress and Fashion in the United States

Reina
Lewis, Fashion, Shame and Pride: Constructing the Modest Fashion Industry in
Three Faiths

Nancy
Lindisfarne-Tapper and Bruce Ingham, Languages of Dress in the Middle East

Annelies
Moors (ed.), Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion: New Perspectives from Europe and
North America

Annelies
Moors, “Islamic Fashion” in Europe: Religious conviction, aesthetic
style, and creative consumption

Annelies
Moors, “Islam and Fashion on the Streets of San’a, Yemen”

David
Patel, Concealing to reveal: The informational role of Islamic dress 

Daniela
Pisoiu, Subcultural Theory Applied to Jihadi and Right-Wing Radicalization in
Germany
 

Scott
Sanford, “How to spot a jihadi”

Michael
Semple, Black flags and balaclavas: how jihadists dress for imaginary war

Faegheh Shirazi,
Men’s facial hair in Islam: A matter of interpretation 

Emma Tarlo,
Visibly Muslim: Fashion, Politics, Faith

Emma Tarlo,
Reconsidering stereotypes: Anthropological reflections on the jilbab
controversy

Jihadi iconography and cinematography: A reading list

So, here’s my reading list on jihadi imagery, to supplement my lists on poetry, dreams and music. I have not included general works on jihadi propaganda or internet use, nor have I included the large literature on visual representations of jihadis in mainstream media or cinema. I also haven’t included blogs (such as Views from the Occident) that contain primary sources on jihadi visual culture. As always, I welcome feedback on items I have missed. 


Christopher
Anzalone, From “Martyrdom” Videos to Jihadi Journalism in Somalia:
The Rapid Evolution of Harakat al-Shabab al-Mujahideen’s Multimedia

Mike Ball, Documenting
Acts of Cruelty
 

Arthur
Beifuss, Branding Terror: The Logotypes and Iconography of Insurgent Groups and
Terrorist Organizations

Neville
Bolt, The Violent Image: Insurgent Propaganda and the New Revolutionaries

Lianne Kennedy
Boudali, Afshon Ostovar, and Jarret Brachman, Islamic Imagery Project: Visual
Motifs in Jihadi Internet Propaganda

Maura Conway
and Lisa McInerney, Jihadi Video and Auto-Radicalisation: Evidence from an Exploratory
YouTube Study

Cori Dauber, The Importance of Images to America’s Fight against Violent Jihadis 

Cori E.
Dauber, YouTube War: Fighting in a World of Cameras in Every Cell Phone and Photoshop
on Every Computer

Coi E.
Dauber, The Impact of Visual Images: Addendum

James Der
Derian, Imaging terror: logos, pathos and ethos

Asiem El Difraoui, Al Qaida par l’image ou la prophétie du
martyre

Andrew Exum,
The Spectacle of War: Insurgent Video Propaganda and Western Response,
1990-Present

James
Farwell, Jihadi Video in the “War of Ideas”

Jeff
Ferrell, Chris Greer, and Yvonne Jewkes, Hip Hop Graffiti, Mexican Murals and the
War on Terror

Jonathan Fighel,
Radical Islamic Internet Propaganda: Concepts, Idioms and Visual Motifs

Cecilie
Finsnes, What is Audio-Visual Jihadi Propaganda? An Overview of the Content of
FFI’s Jihadi Video Database

Tim Foxley,
The Taliban’s Propaganda Activities

Rosaviola Frohneberg and Guido Steinberg, Videopropaganda
und Radikalisierung

Christiane Gruber
and Sune Haugbolle (eds), Visual Culture in the Modern Middle East: Rhetoric of
the Image

Madeleine
Gruen, Innovative Recruitment and Indoctrination Tactics by Extremists: Video Games,
Hip Hop, and the World Wide Web

Mohammed
Hafez, Martyrdom Mythology in Iraq: How Jihadists Frame Suicide Terrorism in
Videos and Biographies

Martin
Harrow, Video-Recorded Decapitations: A Seemingly Perfect Terrorist Tactic that
did not Spread
 

Andrew
Hill, Hostage Videos in the War on Terror 

Eric
Hiltner, Insurgent Media 

Philip Holtmann,
The Symbols of Online Jihad

Walid El
Houri and Dima Saber, Filming Resistance: A Hezbollah Strategy 

IntelCenter,
Evolution of Jihadi Video

IntelCenter, Jihadi Master Video Guide (JMVG)

IntelCenter,
IntelCenter Rebel Logo ID Guide for Syria

Aarti Iyer,
Understanding the Power of the Picture: The Effect of Image Content on
Emotional and Political Responses to Terrorism

Rita Katz
and Josh Devon, Jihad on YouTube

Daniel
Kimmage and Kathleen Ridolfo, The War of Images and Ideas: How Sunni Insurgents
in Iraq and their Supporters Worldwide are Using the Media

Alexander
Meleagrou-Hitchens, Lights, Camera, Jihad: Al-Shabaab’s Western Media Strategy

Hanne
Miriam Larsen, Hostage Videos: Tropes of Terror as Social Practice

Pete
Lentini and Muhammad Bakashmar, Jihadist Beheading: A Convergence of
Technology, Theology, and Teleology? 

Sue Malvem
and Gabriel Koureas, Terrorist Transgressions: Gender and the Visual Culture of
the Terrorist

Ibrahim
al-Marashi, Sadrabiliyya: The Visual Narrative of Muqtada Al-Sadr’s Islamist
Politics and Insurgency in Iraq

Bouchra
Oualla, Strategies of Argumentations in the Propaganda of Jihad: The Analysis
of a Youtube Jihad Video

Nicholas J.
O’Shaughnessy and Paul R Baines, Selling Terror: The Symbolization and
Positioning of Jihad

Dawn
Perlmutter, Mujahideen Blood Rituals: The Religious and Forensic Symbolism of
Al Qaeda Beheading
 

Dawn
Perlmutter, Mujahideen Desecration: Beheadings, Mutilation & Muslim
Iconoclasm

Nico
Prucha, Is this the most successful release of a jihadist video ever? 

Lucas
Régner, The YouTube-Born Terrorist

Marc
Reilly, Pornography of the Dead

Diana
Rieger, Lena Frischlich, and Gary Bente, Propaganda 2.0: Psychological Effects
of Right-Wing and Islamic Extremist Internet Videos
 

Nathan
Roger, Image Warfare in the War on Terror 

Arab Salem,
Edna Reid, and Hsinchun Chen, Multimedia Content Coding and Analysis:
Unraveling the Content of Jihadi Extremist Groups’ Videos

Aymenn J. Al-Tamimi, 

Archive of Jabhat al-Nusra Billboards and Murals

Aaron
Weisburd, Comparison of Visual Motifs in Jihadi and Cholo Videos on YouTube

Carol
Winkler and Cori E. Dauber, Visual Propaganda and Extremism in the Online
Environment

Jihadi music: A reading list

I continue my literature survey with a reading list on music. Jihadis, of course, draw a sharp distinction between instrumental music (musiqa), which they denounce, and a capella hymns (anashid), which they warmly embrace. Still, it is all organized sound, so we can call it music in English. As with the previous reading lists on poetry and dreams, I cast the net wider than just the jihadi universe because it is useful to know what non-jihadi Islamist groups and other religious Muslims are doing. Here again I welcome suggestions and corrections. 


Joseph
Alagha, “Jihad through ‘music’: The Taliban and Hizbullah” 

Farid El
Asri, Rythmes et voix d’islam: Une socioanthropologie d’artistes musulmans
européens

Talal Atrissi,
“Chants de la résistance et libanisation du Hezbollah”

Carin Berg,
“Tunes of religious resistance? Understanding Hamas music in a conflict context”

Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, Vom Gangster-Rap zum Jihad-Aufruf – radikalisierende Hymnen
“neugeborener” Salafisten
 

Claudia
Dantschke, Ohne Musik geht es nicht: Salafismus und „Nasheeds“ (Anasheed) in
Deutschland

Michaael Frischkopf,
Inshad Dini and Aghani Diniyya in Twentieth Century Egypt: A Review of Styles,
Genres, and Available Recordings

Michael
Frischopf, “‘Islamic Music in Africa’ as a Tool for African Studies”

Miriam
Gazzah, Rhythms and Rhymes of Life: Music and Identification Processes of
Dutch-Moroccan Youth

Jeanette S.
Jouili and Annelies Moors, Islamic Sounds and the Politics of Listening

Moslih
Kanaaneh, Stig-Magnus Thorsén, Heather Bursheh, and David A. McDonald (eds), Palestinian
Music and Song: Expression and Resistance since 1900

Katy Khan, “‘Sonic
Jihad’: Black Popular Music and the Renegotiation of Muslim Identities in
Post 9/11″

Anthony
Lemieux and Robert Nill, “The Role and Impact of Music in Promoting (and
Countering) Violent Extremism”

Rüdiger
Lohlker, “Hip Hop and Islam: An Exploration into Music, Technology, Religion,
and Marginality”
 

Peter
Mandaville, “Hip-hop, Nasheeds, and ‘Cool’ Sheikhs”

Joseph
Massad, “Liberating Songs: Palestine Put to Music”

David A.
McDonald, My Voice is My Weapon: Music, Nationalism, and the Poetics of
Palestinian Resistance

Laudan
Nooshin (ed), Music and the Play of Power: Music, Politics and Ideology in the
Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia

Mikhail
Pelevin and Matthias Weinreich, “The Songs of the Taliban”

Jonathan
Pieslak, Sound Targets

Behnam Said,
“A Brief Look at the History and Power of Anasheed in Jihadist Culture”

Behnam
Said, “Hymns (Nasheeds): A Contribution to the Study of the Jihadist Culture”

Behnam Said,
“Naschid-Gesänge im Salafismus” 

Behnam
Said, “Dschihadistische Hymnen. Begrifflichkeiten, Entstehungsgeschichte und
Relevanz für die deutsche Szene”

Kamal
Salhi, Music, Culture and Identity in the Muslim World: Performance, Politics
and Piety

Tilman
Seidensticker, “Jihad Hymns (Nashīds) as a Means of Self-Motivation in the
Hamburg Group”

Michael Semple,
“Rhetoric of resistance in the Taliban’s rebel ballads” 

Karin van
Nieuw kerk,  Performing Piety: Singers and Actors in Egypt’s Islamic Revival

Karin van
Nieuwkerk (ed), Muslim Rap, Halal Soaps, and Revolutionary Theater: Artistic
Developments in the Muslim World 

Earle H. Waugh,
Memory, Music, and Religion: Morocco’s Mystical Chanters

Chuen-Fung
Wong, “Conflicts, Occupation, and Music-Making in Palestine”

Updates

22 May: I just discovered this:

Thomas H. Johnson and Ahmad Waheed, Analyzing Taliban taranas (chants): an effective Afghan propaganda artifact

Soeuf Elbadawi,
“Allah remixé par le rap : le flow de la prédication en France”

Jihadi dreams: A reading list

Jihadis are generally interested in dreams, and jihadi leaders sometimes use alleged dreams to legitimize decisions or claims to authority. Here’s a reading list for those interested in knowing more. As with the list on poetry, I welcome feedback about items I have missed.


Kelly
Bulkeley, Kate Adams, and Patricia Davis (eds.), Dreaming in Christianity and
Islam

Iain Edgar,
The Dream in Islam

Iain Edgar,
“The ‘true dream’ in contemporary Islamic/Jihadist dreamwork: a case study of
the dreams of Mullah Omar”

Iain Edgar,
“The inspirational night dream in the motivation and justification of Jihad”

Iain Edgar
and David Henig, “The Cosmopolitan and the Noumenal: A Case Study of Islamic
Jihadist Night Dreams as Reported Sources of Spiritual and Political
Inspiration”

Iain Edgar,
“Overtures of Paradise: Night Dreams and Islamic Jihadist Militancy”

Iain Edgar,
“The Dream Will Tell: Militant Muslim Dreaming in the Context of Traditional
and Contemporary Islamic Dream Theory and Practice.”

Özgen Felek
and Alexander Knysh (eds.), Dreams and Visions in Islamic Societies

Nile Green,
“The Religious and Cultural Roles of Dreams and Visions in Islam”

Ignác Goldziher,
“The Appearance of the Prophet in Dreams”

Valerie
Hoffman, The Role of Visions in Contemporary Egyptian Religious Life  

Aaron Hughes,
“Imagining the divine: Ghazali on imagination, dreams, and dreaming”

Benjamin J.
Kilbourne, “Moroccan Dream Interpretation and Culturally Constituted Defense
Mechanisms”

John
Lamoreaux, The Early Muslim Tradition of Dream Interpretation

Stephen M.
Lyon, “Motivation and justification from dreams: Muslim decision making
strategies in Punjab, Pakistan”

Jonathan
Katz, Dreams, Sufism and Sainthood: The Visionary Career of Muhammad Al-Zawawi

Meenakshi Khanna, “Dreams
and visions in North Indian sufic traditions ca 1500 1800 AD”

Louise Marlow
(ed.), Dreaming Across Boundaries: The Interpretation of Dreams in Islamic
Lands

Amira
Mittermaier, Dreams That Matter: Egyptian Landscapes of the Imagination

Bill Musk, “Dreams
and the Ordinary Muslim”

Mohamed
Omar Salem, Mohamed Abdel Latif Ragab, and Said Yousif Abdel Razak, “Significance
of Dreams among United Arab Emirates University Students”

Elizabeth
Sirriyeh, Dreams and Visions in the World of Islam

Elizabeth
Sirriyeh, “Dream narratives of Muslims’ martyrdom: Constant and changing roles
past and present.”

Elizabeth
Sirriyeh, “Dreams of the Holy Dead: Traditional Islamic Oneirocriticism versus
Salafi Scepticism”

G. E. Von
Grunebaum and Roger Callois, The Dream and Human Societies 


Updates

20 May: Christopher (@ibnsiqilli) Anzalone alerted me to some important works:

Nozhat Ahmadi, The Role of Dreams in the Political Affairs of the Safavid Dynasty 

Amira Mittermaier, The politics of divine intervention

Ehsan Pouresmaeil, Seeing Allah While Dreaming: A Comparison between Shi‘a and Sunni Beliefs